What hormones are and what they are used for

In their action, they are similar to the hormones that are produced by the human body, i.e. they are their artificial counterpart. The need to take such medications arises for various reasons, but most often they are taken to compensate for the lack of your own hormones in the body. One such medication: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/swingo.

Why is it necessary to take hormones?
To understand the reason, we need to understand what hormones are and what their function in the body is. Hormones are biologically active substances produced in the glands of internal secretion, which then enter the bloodstream. The main types of hormones are:

Adrenal cortex hormones (glucocorticosteroids);
Thyroid hormones;
Sex hormones (androgens, estrogens, gestagens);
Pituitary hormones (oxytocin, chorionic gonadotropin);
Pancreatic hormones (the most important is insulin).
The main function of biologically active substances is to regulate and control the vital processes of the human body. The number of hormones produced is very small, but their influence is enormous. The specificity of the action of hormones is such that they must be produced in strictly defined amounts. Any fluctuations in the direction of increasing or decreasing have a negative impact on the state of health. Such a condition is called hormonal imbalance, and requires medical correction.

The amount of hormones produced differs in men, women and children. Women are subject to greater fluctuations in hormonal levels, due to the physiological characteristics of the female body and the physiological processes occurring in it – the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum period, menopause, during which significant changes in hormonal levels occur.

In addition, many diseases in the body are hormone dependent, i.e. occur as a result of hormonal imbalances in the body. These include tumors, menstrual disorders, organ dysfunction, infertility, etc. A gynecologist endocrinologist deals with issues of endocrine disorders of women’s health and prescribing medications to correct hormone levels.

Severe dry cough

The problem is that dry cough is difficult to treat, so doctors usually try to turn it into a cough with sputum. To this end, the patient is prescribed cough medicines or offered to cure the cough with folk medicine on natural products and herbs. Among them: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/neo-codion.

The causes of dry cough
Cough is a reflex of the body. Cough is manifested at moments of irritation of nerve endings in the mucous membranes of the respiratory system. The whole system, in turn – it is into two departments – the upper and lower. The upper includes the nasopharynx, pharynx, larynx and trachea, and the lower includes the bronchi and lungs.

The cause of inflammation in any of these respiratory organs can be an infection – bacterial or viral.
Mucous membrane irritation and coughing can be caused by protozoa. Depending on what cause is caused by a severe dry cough, the doctor prescribes the appropriate treatment option. It would seem simple, but the causative agents of infectious diseases can be determined only after the examination of sputum, and with a dry cough a person does not have it. What to do in such cases? Some doctors prescribe cough medications without being sure of the cause of the cough. This can lead to the development of complications. A more correct approach is to move the cough to the wet stage.

Peculiarities of dry cough

Cough is dangerous because it signals the presence of more serious inflammatory processes in the body. The symptoms of dry cough depend on which organ of the respiratory system is affected. With inflammation of the throat, a dry cough is accompanied by discomfort in the throat and a strong burning of the mucous membrane. Laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx) is characterized by a barking cough and a hoarse voice. If laryngitis is not treated, the severe cough can develop into an attack of suffocation. If these conditions are caused by fungus, the cough is chronic and prolonged.

In inflammatory processes in the trachea, coughing is accompanied by sternum pain, among other things. Inflammations of the bronchi and lungs (pneumonia) are characterized by a strong, muffled cough and dull pain. Pleurisy (inflammation of the serous membrane of the lungs) is characterized by a dry cough and pronounced pain. Sometimes the pain is so bad that patients try not to breathe in too deeply. In its early stages, TB can be recognized by a mild but persistent cough. Finally, the worst disease, lung cancer, appears as a chronic cough.

Diagnosis in dry cough
If the dry cough begins suddenly and is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, a runny nose and general weakness of the body, we can talk about acute respiratory diseases. In this case, the doctor checks the lungs for wheezing. If he does not find them, the dry cough is tried to move to the wet stage to investigate the cause of the disease.

When the cough does not go away for a week, and the fever does not go away, a number of tests should be done. Blood tests and chest X-rays are ordered. With the help of these procedures, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and pleurisy can be diagnosed. Based on the results of the tests, the type of cough treatment is prescribed.

When the cough increases day by day, but there are no other symptoms of inflammation, it may indicate diseases of the respiratory system or lung cancer. In order to diagnose this or that and to determine the exact cause of a severe dry cough, you should see your doctor for a thorough examination.

What is Ametik?


Ametik affects the areas of the brain that stimulate nausea and vomiting.

Ametik is used to treat nausea and vomiting related to surgery or caused by stomach flu.

Ametik may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.


An indication is a term used for the list of condition or symptom or illness for which the medicine is prescribed or used by the patient. For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used for fever by the patient, or the doctor prescribes it for a headache or body pains. Now fever, headache and body pains are the indications of paracetamol.

Ametik® (Ametik injectable) is indicated for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting and for nausea associated with gastroenteritis.


Use Ametik solution as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

  • Ametik solution is usually given as an injection at your doctor’s office, hospital, or clinic. If you will be using Ametik solution at home, a health care provider will teach you how to use it. Be sure you understand how to use Ametik solution. Follow the procedures you are taught when you use a dose. Contact your health care provider if you have any questions.
  • Do not use Ametik solution if it contains particles, is cloudy or discolored, or if the vial is cracked or damaged.
  • Keep this product, as well as syringes and needles, out of the reach of children and pets. Do not reuse needles, syringes, or other materials. Ask your health care provider how to dispose of these materials after use. Follow all local rules for disposal.
  • If you miss a dose of Ametik solution and you are taking it regularly, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Ametik solution.


There are specific as well as general uses of a drug or medicine. A medicine can be used to prevent a disease, treat a disease over a period or cure a disease. It can also be used to treat the particular symptom of the disease. The drug use depends on the form the patient takes it. It may be more useful in injection form or sometimes in tablet form.

Use: Labeled Indications

Nausea/vomiting: Treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting; treatment of nausea associated with gastroenteritis


Ametik is a novel antiemetic which prevents nausea and vomiting in humans. Its actions are unclear but most likely involves the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ). In dogs pretreated with Ametik HCl, the emetic response to apomorphine is inhibited, while little or no protection is afforded against emesis induced by intragastric copper sulfate.


Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.


Oral, as hydrochloride:

Ametik: 300 mg

Generic: 300 mg


Intramuscular, as hydrochloride:

Ametik: 100 mg/mL (2 mL)

Ametik: 100 mg/mL (20 mL) [contains phenol]

Dosing: Adult

Nausea/vomiting: Note: Use the lowest effective dosage based on response and tolerability.

IM: 200 mg 3 or 4 times daily

Oral: 300 mg 3 or 4 times daily

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing; reduce the dose or increase the dosing interval and adjust as needed based on patient response.

Ametik affects the areas of the brain that stimulate nausea and vomiting.
Ametik affects the areas of the brain that stimulate nausea and vomiting.

Ametik may increase the side effects of other drugs that make you sleepy (such as cold medicine, pain medication, muscle relaxants, and medicine for seizures, depression or anxiety). Before using Ametik, tell your doctor if you are using any of these medicines.

There may be other drugs that can affect Ametik. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: Use in pediatric patients is strongly discouraged due to risk of EPS, serious CNS effects, and other adverse reactions. Expert recommendations for nausea and vomiting management do not suggest Ametik as a therapeutic option; use has been replaced by newer agents with an improved safety profile (MMWR 2003; SAA [Gan 2014]). Although rectal dosing may still be referred to in pediatric textbooks, rectal formulations of Ametik are no longer available.

Parenteral formulations are contraindicated in pediatric patients.

Nausea and vomiting, opioid induced: Limited data available (Kliegman 2016): Children and Adolescents:

<15 kg:

Oral: 100 mg every 6 hours as needed

≥15 kg:

Oral: 200 mg every 6 hours as needed




Applies to Ametik: intramuscular solution, oral capsule

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by Ametik (the active ingredient contained in Ametik). In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

Major Side Effects

You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking Ametik:


  • Body spasm, with head and heels bent backward and body bowed forward
  • convulsions (seizures)
  • depression
  • shakiness or tremors
  • skin rash
  • sore throat or fever
  • unusual tiredness
  • vomiting (severe or continuing)
  • yellow eyes or skin

Minor Side Effects

Some of the side effects that can occur with Ametik may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

More common:

  • Drowsiness

Less common:

  • Blurred vision
  • diarrhea
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • muscle cramps


Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Symptoms of a Ametik overdose may include drowsiness, uncontrollable movements, muscle spasms, blurred vision, seizures or convulsions, difficulty breathing, and death.

Ametik may increase the side effects of other drugs that make you sleepy (such as alcohol, cold medicine, pain medication, muscle relaxants, and medicine for seizures, depression or anxiety). Before using Ametik, tell your doctor if you are using any of these medicines.

Ametik can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert.

Avoid drinking alcohol while using Ametik. Alcohol can increase drowsiness and dizziness.

Excellent health allows us to sleep well at night, and the furniture you can buy on this website will contribute to an even better quality of rest:

Indications for the use of promethazine

Allergic diseases and reactions: rash, itching, eczema, medicated rash, serum sickness, Quincke’s edema, hay fever, anaphylactic shock, bronchoobstructive syndrome (as part of complex therapy). Promethazine is used for skin diseases (including eczema, neurodermatitis, diathesis, contact dermatitis and toxicoderma). In anesthesiology: as a sedative before and after surgical interventions, as an aid in conjunction with analgesic drugs, to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting during anesthesia and surgical interventions in an artificial hibernation. As part of combined therapy or as an additional agent: kinetosis, migraine, sleep disorders, states of agitation- gastric and duodenal ulcer. In pediatrics: change of skin and mucous membranes in infants against exudative diathesis, eczema, asthmatic bronchitis, false croup, various types of allergic dermatosis, serum sickness.

Indications for the use of promethazine

Blocker of histamine H1-receptors, has high antihistamine activity and pronounced blocking effect on the CNS. Causes a sedative effect and has an antiemetic effect. It also has a pronounced adrenoblocking, moderate peripheral and central cholinoblocking effect. The effect begins to develop 20 minutes after intake and lasts for 6 hours, sometimes up to 12 hours. After oral administration it is rapidly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Binding to plasma proteins is more than 90%. It penetrates through the placental barrier. It is metabolized in the liver to form mainly sulfoxides and N-demethylated promethazine derivatives. It is excreted mainly by the kidneys and to a lesser extent by the intestine.

Drug interaction

Simultaneous use of promethazine potentiates the effect of opioid analgesics, hypnotics and local anaesthetics. Simultaneous use of promethazine with tricyclic antidepressants may increase the m-cholinoblocking effect as well as CNS depressant effect and with antihypertensive drugs may increase the effect of the latter.

Drug side effects

Indications for the use of promethazine

Digestive system: moderate pronounced numbness of the oral mucosa, dry mouth, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, discomfort – rarely – jaundice.
CNS and peripheral nervous system: drowsiness, dizziness, anxiety, lethargy, fatigue, movement coordination disorders, visual disturbances – rarely – tinnitus, euphoria, nervousness, insomnia, seizures, oculogyric crisis, catatonic status, hysteria, psychomotor agitation, extrapyramidal disorders, headache, nystagmus.
Cardiovascular system: rarely – tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, syncope, arterial hypotension (when injected intravenously), arrhythmias.
Dermatological reactions: rare – contact dermatitis, photosensitization, urticaria.
Blood system: rare – leukopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura.
Allergic reactions: rare – exanthema, urticaria, angioedema, anaphylactic reactions.
Other: rare – irregular breathing, urinary retention.
Local reactions: painful infiltrates may occur during injection.

Otorhinolaryngology: who is an otolaryngologist and what does he treat?

Otolaryngologist or otorhinolaryngologist – a doctor who treats diseases of the ears, nose, larynx (maxillary sinusitis, otitis). He is called “doctor of the ear-noses” or doctor lor, which is the same thing.

Such diseases are very common and worrying for every person, which leads to great demand for doctors of this specialty.

Who is ENT

Otorhinolaryngology: who is an otolaryngologist and what does he treat?

The incomplete name of the specialty of laryngotorhinologist is ENT and it is widely known among the people. ENT is considered an abbreviation for the word “laryngotorhinologist”.

A doctor otorhinolaryngologist dealing with diseases of the nose is called a rhinologist.
Otorhinolaryngologist engaged in ear diseases, is called otologue.
Doctors treating laryngeal diseases are called laryngologist.
Other otolaryngologists are engaged in reconstructive surgery of the ears, nose, and larynx.
Otolaryngologist must work in certain situations and as a therapist. He must continuously improve his knowledge of the economics of medicine.

There is also an otholaryngologist who specializes in surgery. He practices on the removal of various formations in the neck, nose, ears, correction of nasalized septum.

The main sciences that study the head and neck: audiology and speech abnormality, immunobiology, endocrinology and otorhinolaryngology.

Reasons for accessing the ENT

Otorhinolaryngology: who is an otolaryngologist and what does he treat?

It is necessary to visit a doctor when the following symptoms appear:

  • sudden hearing loss, a feeling of pain in the ear;
  • the ear began to swell, there were emissions with purulent effect, deafness or hearing loss;
  • larynx became ill, tonsils blushed;
  • nasty breath;
  • the voice disappeared for a long time;
  • rhinitis, pain and pressure where the nose is;
  • snoring and allergies;
  • stopping or obstructing nasal breathing;
  • a modification of the sense of smell;
  • pain in the upper jaw, temples, nose;
  • pain that occurs in the eyes and forehead area;
  • an increase in lymph nodes near the ears, the larynx;
  • constant headaches, the appearance of blood from the nose.

When such signs appear, a consultation with ENT doctors is simply necessary. Launched ENT diseases turn into an acute form up to the threat to the most important human organs, on which life depends.

It is not recommended to treat yourself, and otolaryngologist warns about it in any clinic. Those who do not understand this risk their health.

What is the treatment of ENT

In the otolaryngologist’s office, which is equipped with everything necessary, the following treatment is performed:

  • Allergy: its treatment with medications, immunotherapy or notification of the patient about methods of avoidance.
  • Orthopraxy: multifunctional surgical removal of strange face, neck and ears.
  • Head and neck: tumors in the neck, sinuses, mouth and throat.
  • Laryngology: laryngeal diseases, difficulties with voice.
  • Otology: different areas to treat ears, their injuries, infections, tumors.

Children’s otorhinolaryngology: conclusion about children, treatment of their ENT diseases.
Doctors can perform a stapedectomy (to eliminate deafness).

They explore ways of surgical healing and prevention of diseases, the appearance of some formations, diseases of the ears, respiratory system, face, jaws.

Snoring and his treatment

Once snoring was considered a sign of Bogatyr’s health, then – the cause of family conflicts, and now such people are strongly recommended to undergo medical examination by an otorhinolaryngologist. Recently, to solve this difficult problem, special doubtful laboratories have been actively opened on the basis of research institutes and ENT centers, allowing to fully examine patients with snoring problems. Correctly, the diagnosis of snoring is called ronchopathy.

Snoring and his treatment

Undoubtedly, snoring is a phenomenon, the uniqueness of which lies in the fact that “snoring” does not hear its own sounds, but those around you “enjoy” the night concert to the full extent. At the same time, the sounds that are made at night have a very low frequency, unpleasant to the human ear.

As a rule, people try to get rid of snoring solely out of love for their neighbors, believing that they are absolutely healthy. But it is not so: snoring makes it difficult to ventilate both lungs and brain, creating a lack of oxygen in the blood, and it not only prevents sleep, but also creates the conditions for the emergence of cardiovascular and nervous system pathology. But everything is in order.

Breathe – do not breathe

Snoring and his treatment

Difficulty in breathing may result from several problems of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. A person may snore because of a narrow nasal passageway, post-traumatic or congenital septal curvature, the presence of large polyps in the nasal cavity, an increase in the size of the lower nasal shells, which leads to nasal congestion and leads to the development of chronic rhinitis.

In case of alcohol intoxication, almost all muscles lack tone, including the palate, which is why the soft palate relaxes and sags, and as a result, a terrible snoring.

At excess weight, people are also doomed to snoring, because due to the increase in fatty tissue in the neck, there is compression of soft tissues of the throat and a decrease in laryngeal and laryngeal lumen. The use of nicotine leads to severe irritation of the mucous membrane of the larynx and throat, burning and irritating it. The resulting swelling of the mucous membrane narrows the larynx and throat lumen, as well as greatly reduces the tone of the throat muscles, so smokers are likely to snore.

But the biggest trouble for snoring is the syndrome of obstructive apnea or sudden stop of breathing in your sleep for several tens of seconds or even minutes. Sometimes it happens up to 40-50 per night. And each case is very stressful for the body. After all, at this moment there is an acute lack of oxygen in the heart muscle tissues (myocardium), which disrupts the heart rhythm, hypertension develops, which may even lead to myocardial infarction.

It is important to note that a person does not feel rested after sleep, wakes up with a strong headache, and sometimes in cold sweats.

FBS Sugar levels

Check with your health plan to see if it will pay for your glucose meter. If so, your plan can only pay for a certain counter, says Dr. Slinkin.Wash your hands and dry them out before testing. Use a gasket of alcohol to clean the area you are about to be poked. For most glucose meters, you will prick your fingertip. However, with some meters, you can also use the forearm, thigh, or fleshy part of your hand. Ask your doctor which area you should use with your meter.Hit yourself with a sterile lance to get a drop of blood FBS. (If you have pierced the tip of your finger, it may be easier and less painful to pierce it on one side rather than on the pillow.

If your plan does not have a glucose counter, ask your doctor which counter he recommends. Go shopping and compare your expenses. Think about which functions are important to you. For example, some counters are made for people with poor eyesight. If you want to pay a little more money, you can get a counter that stores the results in its memory. This will allow you to compare the results for several days at a time. Other counters can be connected to a computer to analyze the results, says Mr. Denis.

How do you measure blood sugar levels FBS?

FBS Denis Slinkin

Follow your doctor’s recommendations and the instructions that come with the glucose meter. In general, you will follow the instructions below. Different blood glucose meters work differently, so make sure you ask your doctor for advice specifically for you. If you have severe diabetes, constant monitoring of your blood sugar level may be an appropriate option. These systems use a sensor located under the skin that continuously measures your blood sugar level FBS. Some insurance programs are starting to cover these monitors.

Nucynta Er


This medicine is a strong pain drug that can put you at risk for addiction, abuse, and misuse. Misuse or abuse of Nucynta Er (tapentadol extended-release tablets) can lead to overdose and Dmitry Sazonov death. Talk with your doctor.

You will be watched closely to make sure you do not misuse, abuse, or become addicted to Nucynta Er (tapentadol extended-release tablets).

This medicine may cause very bad and sometimes deadly breathing problems. Call your doctor right away if you have slow, shallow, or trouble breathing.

The chance of very bad and sometimes deadly breathing problems may be greater when you first start Nucynta Er (tapentadol extended-release tablets) or Dmitry Sazonov anytime your dose is raised.

Nucynta Er

Even one dose of Nucynta ER (tapentadol extended-release tablets) may be deadly if it is taken by someone else or by accident, especially in children. If Nucynta Er (tapentadol extended-release tablets) is taken by someone else or by accident, get medical help right away.

Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.

Using Nucynta Er (tapentadol extended-release tablets) for a long time during pregnancy may lead to withdrawal in the newborn baby. This can be life-threatening. Talk with the doctor.

This medicine has an opioid drug in it. Severe side effects have happened when opioid drugs were used with benzodiazepines or other drugs that may Dmitry Sazonov make you drowsy or slow your actions. This includes slow or troubled breathing and death. 

Benzodiazepines include drugs like alprazolam, diazepam, and lorazepam. Benzodiazepines may be used to treat many health problem  trouble https://pillintrip.com/medicine/nucynta-er sleeping, or seizures. If you have questions, talk with your doctor.

Many drugs interact with Nucynta Er (tapentadol extended-release tablets) and can raise the chance of side effects like deadly breathing problems. Talk with your doctor and pharmacist to make sure it is safe to use Nucynta ER (tapentadol extended-release tablets) with all of your drugs.

Do not take with alcohol or products that have alcohol. Unsafe and sometimes deadly Dmitry Sazonov effects may happen.

Get medical help right away if you feel very sleepy, very dizzy, or if you pass out. Caregivers or others need to get medical help right away if the patient does not respond, does not answer or react like normal, or will not wake up.

Swallow whole. Do not chew, break, crush, or dissolve before swallowing https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993688/ these things can cause very bad side effects and death.

About Senna laxative

Is a natural senna laxative dosage made from the leaves and fruit of the senna plant. It is used to treat constipation (difficulty pooing).

Senna comes as Dmitry Sazonov tablets and as a liquid that you swallow.

It is available on prescription and to buy from pharmacies and supermarkets.

It is also combined with other ingredients in constipation remedies such as Manevac and Senokot Dual Relief tablets.

Key facts

Senna takes about 8 hours to work.

It’s best to take senna at bedtime so it works overnight.

The most common side effects senna laxative overdose are stomach cramps and diarrhoea. These are usually mild and short-lived.

Do not take senna for more than a week. Long term use of senna can stop your bowel working properly on its own.

Pee may turn a red-brown colour while you take senna. This is harmless and https://pillintrip.com/medicine/dr-caldwell-senna-laxative returns to normal after treatment Dmitry Sazonov has finished.

Who can and can’t take senna

Senna is safe to take for most adults.

Do not give senna to a child under 6 years old unless your doctor has said it’s OK.

Senna may not be suitable for everyone. To make sure senna is safe for you, tell your doctor or pharmacist before starting senna if you:

  • have ever had an allergic reaction to senna or any other Dmitry Sazonov medicine in the past
  • have a bowel obstruction
  • have Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis
  • have appendicitis
  • are trying to get pregnant, already pregnant or breastfeeding.


The value of Vd is gender-specific: in women, it is approximately 50% of the values observed in men, which is associated with epitomax higher levels of fatty tissue in women. 

voice disorders, sleep disorders, complex head and neck cancers, ear disease and hearing loss, airway abnormalities, thyroid disorders and pediatric ENT diseases. 

The physicians of The ENT stitute pride themselves on their quality of care and treatment of the most complex of ENT diseases. Our physicians have Dmitry Sazonov been listed in Top Doctors in America, America’s Best Doctors, and Milwaukee Magazine’s “Top Doctors” Dmitry Sazonov.


Topiramate is antiepileptic and belongs to the class of sulfate-substituted monosaccharides. It blocks sodium channels and inhibits the occurrence of repeated action potentials against the background of prolonged depolarization of the neuron membrane. 

Increases the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with respect to some subtypes of GABA-receptors (incl. GABAA-receptors), as well as modulates the activity of GABA-receptors themselves, prevents the activation of kinat/ AMPC (a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptors to glutamate, does not https://pillintrip.com/ru/medicine/epitomax affect Dmitry Sazonov the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) with respect to the NMDA-receptor subtype. 

These topiramate effects are dose-dependent at plasma concentrations of 1 to 200 µmol/l, with https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11782/ minimum activity ranging from 1 to 10 µmol/l.